The Practical Guide to XLAs

There are many generic ideas about XLAs, but not many practical guides for IT Service Managers and Directors on how to actually bring Experience Level Agreements into their organisations. This Practical Guide to XLAs goes into great depth to give as much practical assistance on getting you started.

Introduction

 
happysignals-the-practical-guide-to-xlas-cover-smallWhen you start reading this guide, you will soon realise that XLAs are only a small piece of an experience puzzle. We will explain why this is and how you need to be focusing on a much bigger picture - Experience ManagementNo agreement can help you and your partners to create and deliver amazing experiences or increase your end-user’s productivity, unless you utilise experience management.
 
In this extensive guide, we will show you how to get to speed with experience management through:
  • Measuring your end-users experiences, to gain rich experience data
  • Why sharing experience data with the team and partners motivates the whole of IT
  • Identify problem areas where your end-users are having bad experiences
  • Working on ways to improve your end-users experience from the three steps above.
This approach will create an end-user centric culture, that motivates the whole IT department.
 
At the end of this guide are some real world customer case examples, on how our customers have started their journeys and the achievements they have been able to make through experience management. These cases show in-depth stories and data on the successful changes implemented, within their organisations. 
 
You can also download this document as a PDF and share with your colleagues.
 

Table of Contents

  1. What are Experience Level Agreements?
  2. Why is Experience Management in IT needed?
  3. How can IT implement Experience Management?
  4. Download this Guide
 

SLAs (Service Level Agreement) measure the process or completing an objective - XLAs, on the other hand, measures the outcome and value. This is where HappySignals see the Service Management heading. 

Definition of XLA

"SLAs measure the process - XLAs measure the outcome and value" 
The term ‘Experience level agreements’ has been widely used and defined differently by many. So instead of given you a biased view, we have summed up key definitions from industry leaders, to bring an overall view of what an XLA is in this article of definitions of XLA.
 
A short summary of industry definitions from our blog:
 
  • Giarte, who holds the trademark, defines XLA as being less of a traditional agreement (such as SLAs) and more focused on working to achieve desired outcomes.
  • CitrusCollab’s, Alan Nance, on the other hand defines XLAs as putting outcomes that determine the consumer experience central to design efforts.
  • Hannah Price - a Service Management Consultant for TOPdesk, explains XLAs as how did the customer feel about how they were treated.
 
Just like us at HappySignals, industry believes Experience Level Agreements should focus on the measurement of outcomes and the value given by a service. Instead of having judicial agreements on metrics, we recommend you to take into practice Experience Management.

xla-vs-sla-outcome-metrics
 
Furthermore, in order to paint a greater picture of XLAs, we have compared the main differences between XLA and SLAs in the chapter below.

What do XLAs look like?

XLAs do not have a universal formula that companies should follow. Instead, XLAs should be tailored to an organisations IT problem areas, and the outcome and value they want to achieve. 
 
In order to show you how XLAs look like, we have drawn comparison against its predecessor - SLAs.
 
SLA - Service Level Agreement XLA - Experience Level Agreement
Measures the output of IT Measures the outcome of IT
Measures the processes Measure the added value and productivity of services
SLAs focus on high level objectives, that can easily be met. However, do not paint an in-depth picture of what is really happening within IT. Brings focus directly to end-users experience and needs.
SLAs show you if IT is delivering projects within the right time frame and budget - ignoring the true success of projects. With XLAs you can bring business value and increase productivity of end-users.
Focus on sanctions Focus on rewards
Measurement targets stays the same Measurement targets constantly change

 

Importantly, you can use XLAs and SLAs in tandem with each other. The important thing to notice, however, is the need for the capabilities and metrics that measure success where outcomes occur and value is created.

 
There also needs to be a possibility to adjust the target levels set in XLAs, as we cover in other chapters, due to business and end-users expectations changing, as well as unprecedented phenomena occurring which IT has no control over. 

Not just sanctions, but rewards as well

One main difference, which leads to a totally different culture, is rewarding based on XLAs, not just using them for measurement of sanctions, like SLAs are normally used. Putting rewards in the contracts highlights the need to work together to make improvements for end-users.
 
Thinking behind this is naturally that if your department or external service provider helps you to increase the productivity of your end-users, you company should be able to be more profitable. Check some of the customer cases at the end of this article to learn how these have been used.

Benefits of XLAs

Even though the definition of XLAs remains uncertain, the benefits do not. In our blog, we wrote an article about the benefits of XLAs, and have summarised the key benefits below. 
 
We see the key five benefits as:
  1. XLAs measure the business value of the Service Desk
  2. XLA measurement increases co-operation
  3. Motivating for Service Desk teams
  4. Drives business value
  5. Moving target in a positive way, never settle
 
As you can see, the benefits of XLAs differ vastly from the benefits of SLAs. However, when adopting XLAs into your organisation, many teams will become stumped due to different mistakes they have made.

Common mistakes when taking XLAs into use

We would love to tell you that you can adopt XLAs and everything is going to be smooth seas and plain sailing. Unfortunately, there are mistakes that can impact a successful XLA implementation. Lucky for you, we have devised these warning signals, to help guide you through which ever journey you are embarking on.
 
We have approached XLAs mistakes in two ways:
  • XLA mistakes in comparison to SLAs
  • Common issues when adopting XLAs
 

XLA mistakes in comparison to SLAs

1. Avoid positioning XLAs the same as SLAs

The purpose of SLAs may be wrong, as well as SLAs being used for the wrong measurement. You cannot measure experience with an SLA metric, neither have it as a measurement for improvement. SLAs also may only be in an organisation because:
  • ITIL says so
  • IT departments trying to defend their performance to stakeholders 
  • Inheriting SLAs from previous service management
  • Because we “need” it for agreement to be able to control our providers
 
Positioning SLAs this way creates no real direction for IT, will not create a positive change for end-users or service desk agents, or give you a true insight into your IT Service Experience.
 
Therefore, you also need to apply this to XLA positioning. Create a goal and meaning behind each XLA you create and how that is going to add value to end-users of agents. Setting up an XLA just because industry experts say so, isn’t enough to do it. Discover what you want to solve or improve for an end-user with XLAs before you set them. 
 
You can still use SLAs in conjunction with XLAs, however, make sure you are measuring the right things - i.e. XLAs to measure experience and outcome, SLAs to measure outputs; such as project budgets.
 

2. Avoid creating XLAs the same as SLAs

SLAs have had no or barely any involvement from end-users. This is one of the biggest mistakes you can make when devising XLAs. Experience Level Agreements should be directly linked to end-user experience, therefore it is pivotal that you involve them in XLA discussions. 
 
Another common mistake is using a “one-size fits all” approach, similar to what has been found in SLA usage. XLAs need to be tailored to experience and organisations problems or needs. Furthermore, SLAs focus on what you can physically measure; time, budgets, tickets etc. This completely misses the most important thing - the end-users experience. 
 
Make sure that XLAs are measuring the most important and valuable outcomes instead of traditional operational data.
 

3. Don’t use XLAs the same way as SLAs

SLAs have previously been used to show targets being hit, however never an indicator for improvement. This tends to be down to what SLAs are set to measure. XLAs should be the driver for change and the springboard to act on your end-users pain points within their service experience.
 
Another negative use of SLAs has been that they have continuously remained the same, measuring the same outputs. This means they are never reviewed or updated in order to reflect business needs and priorities. With XLAs, you need to be continuously measuring your end-users experience and then updating your XLAs according to the received experience data. End-users experiences will change over time, therefore different goals and targets will need to be set in order to meet end-users needs.
 
It could even be said that most important usage of XLA’s or any experience related measurement is to identify the problem areas to improve. When you have done that, the typical SLA’s might help you to understand what is wrong with the process or service it self, but it doesn’t go the other way around. SLA’s cannot be used to know where experience is lacking.
 

Common issues when adopting XLAs

1. Confusion based issues

Experience level agreements are different to Service Level Agreements. Fact. Even if one word is only different and it is still a three letter acronym, they are not the same kettle of fish, therefore you must differentiate the two.
 
HappySignals CEO, Sami Kallio, differentiates the two as “SLAs measure the process, XLAs measures the outcomes and value”.
 
In order to differentiate XLAs from SLAs, as well as to not create confusion amongst your IT team, start to define what experience means within your organisation - what does ‘experience’ mean for your organisations employees through your IT services and support capabilities.
 
Experience is not just an organisational change or new way of measuring, but it a cultural change. You need to impact the mindsets of your team and end-users to this new way of working.
 

2. Common Adoption Issues

Instantly swapping SLAs for XLAs is something we do not advise. Yes, we are pioneering for a change in measurement and experience, but we do not recommend scrubbing out SLAs completely. In fact, our customers run both metrics in tandem with each other.
 
Make sure to go through the necessary change management process to introduce you end-users to this new change. This is not an overnight procedure, therefore take time with the process, introductions and transition to XLAs.
 
The biggest thing to adhere to, and something that has been mentioned above, XLAs are not a set in stone metric that can be left there forever. You must adapt them, change them and keep track of them. 
 
Experience is a continuous evolution.
 

3. Common Usage Issues

Now this is probably the biggest point for you to follow. Using XLAs without Experience Management, misses the big picture.
 
As stated in the introduction XLAs are just one piece of the puzzle. In order to understand the rest of the puzzle and to truly integrate XLAs you need to have Experience Management.
 
You may of already started to wonder how can your XLAs measure experience? Or how do I really find out what my end-users feel? How can I identify problem areas? Or even wondering how can I really access experience rich data about the impact on my IT services and processes for my end-users?
 
This is called Experience Management.

Why is Experience Management in IT needed?

Chapter 2

happysignals-xla-guide-ilkka
Businesses now have much higher needs and expectations, which IT need to respond to. If you look at 2019/20 and how quickly global situations changed, IT and Service Departments were forced and rushed into rapid digital transformation in order to help keep their workforce active, let alone productive. 
 
Furthermore, end-users wants and needs are also changing, with the impact of consumerization coming inside companies, with the demand for better and greater experiences with tech and services.
 
In most big organisations, there is the belief that IT does not understand end-user’s need, and they just do what is asked. To be able to serve businesses proactively, IT should understand the employees of businesses even better than organisation do. By doing this, IT can create and present development actions to the business based on real end-user needs, not only directors gut feelings.
 
So, how does this tie into Experience Management? In order to respond to business needs, deliver positive end-user experiences and drive productivity and business value you need to constantly monitor, manage and maintain experience.
 
Experience Management for IT consists of the measuring and sharing of experience data to identify key areas where experiences can be improved for end-users and external stakeholders, resulting in increased business value for an organisation.
 
But let’s not eat the elephant. We have broken this down into bite sized chunks to help you digest the concept easier.

Process of Experience Management

HappySignals brings you the process to manage the experiences and set experience level targets.

Watch 1 minute video to see the explanation
experience-management-process-for-it-happysignals

Measure

In order to know what experience your end-users are having and how to prioritise business needs, you need to start and continue to collect experience data. Getting high volumes of experience data and combining this with your company’s operational data is key to gaining meaningful insights into experiences of different business areas, such as Service Management or even how your workforce is coping with Remote Working.
 

Share

One of the most important parts of experience management is sharing this data with all stakeholders. This creates transparency and trust as well as opens the problem to the whole team, instead of having one person owning the data. This is also a great way to work closer with your partners and vendors as well as motivating for them.
 

Identify

By having a constant flow of data, you are able to see in real-time the experience your end-users are having. This enables you to make data-driven decision making, and focus directly on the areas of IT that need improving. From this data, you are able to start setting Experience Level targets. 
 
This reinforces why there is no universal formula for XLAs, as an organisations data will differ depending on their end-users experiences.
 

Improve 

After identifying problem areas, you are able to work from your end-users experience data to improve their experience.
 
animated-experience-management-process-happysignals
 
As you can see from the image above, XLAs outcome metrics become a part of the cycle in the Identify period and continues through Improve into Measure. This is because Experience Management, as well as Experience Level Target setting, is a continuous process and needs to be effectively managed. Your end-users will continue to have experience which will vary and change over time, therefore measurement needs to be carried out to make sure they are receiving a positive experience in order to power a happy and productive workforce.
 
Experience management is a continuous cycle, and relates directly to ITIL 4’s statement on the importance of implementing continuous service improvement.
 
Our customers have been able to improve productivity by 26% - find out how they have done it.

Digital Transformation and importance of Experience Management

An area where companies spend and end up wasting a lot of money every year. In 2018, $900 billion was wasted on Digital Transformation projects, and this is due to a cultural problem within IT departments, focusing their measurements on outputs, schedule and budgets, instead of outcomes; Employee Experience.
 
When approaching Digital Transformation projects, you need to start at the end first, figuring out what outcome is to be achieved. This outcome should be centered around the end-users needs and how it will bring value to them and the business. 
 
Experience management becomes a vital part of reaching your desired outcome as it enables you to approach digital transformation projects in 3 key successful ways:
 

1. Measurement and Metrics

SLAs are not the right metric to be measuring experience. In order to successfully measure your end-users experience and whether projects or services are delivered successfully, you must use Experience Level Agreements (XLAs).
 

2. Data-Driven Decisions

Through constant feedback loops, you can access high levels of real-time data relating to many specific areas of your end-users experience. This enables you to make data-driven decision making on where your team should focus their efforts to improve experience and create business value.
 

3. Culture

In order to embrace experience, adapt your culture to welcome and embrace change, new innovations and understand the reasons for digital transformation in the first place. This should be led from the IT department and not from individual business units. Culture is usually part of the C-level initiatives and hence, we suggest you to head over to our CIO Guide to Employee Experience Guide.
 
Another key part of reshaping your culture is introducing rewards for great results, not just having sanctions that were present with SLA metrics. By including rewards in your experience agreements will motivate your Service Desk to deliver a great service.

Benefits for roles, how Experience Management changes your work

Experience Management has so many benefits for the IT department, that it makes sense to divide them into different roles in the organisation. Listed below are how different roles benefits when moving away from measuring the output of IT to managing the outcome of IT.
 
Role Output focus (SLA) Outcome focus (XLA)
CIO / IT Directors / IT Management Team SLA’s are needed to control what we and partners do. When they are green, we are doing well. I give focus and direction to my IT department and empower them to deliver good experience to our end-users. This is how we prove our value to business stakeholders, productivity and happiness of end-users.
Service Owner,
Service Management
SLA’s need to be met, because that is what Management Team is looking for I analyze the experience data together with my vendors and bring solutions to life that improve happiness and productivity.
Service Owner,
End-user Services
It’s Service Desks responsibility if people are unhappy with the service. I just run the service with uptime and availability. I monitor and analyse the experience of my end-users in my services, to make sure the service provides what they are expecting. They are my colleagues and I want them to be able to do their jobs productively.
Service Owner,
End-user Devices
I optimize the cost structure of our devices and make policies for them. Dollar saved is dollar earned, right? I understand different users and their needs with their devices. I try to save their time, which saves company’s money and makes our workforce more productive and happy.
Service Owner,
Service Desk Outsourcing
I outsource to external provider and make sure sanctions are in place if CSAT is not at the level agreed 2 years ago. We add experience metrics into our contracts as XLAs, with rewards if they exceed the exceptions of our end-users. I work with them to make sure that happens as well.
Service Desk Managers I bring escalated cases to our Team meetings and make sure whole team meets the SLAs that are set. My concern is not the end-user. I share all the experience data in real-time with everybody in the Service Desk, 75% of is positive and I know that make a positive impact on the motivation of my Agents. Agent satisfaction correlates directly to end-user experience and I can prove it with data. We can also talk with Service Owners on how their service is experienced, showing it’s not total responsibility of the Service Desk.
IT Departments Employees
(Agents as well)
I keep lights on and systems running. I hate users complaining when they don’t understand that I cannot help them. I come every day to work to provide most productive IT solutions to our employees, so that they can serve our external customers. This makes me happy.
End-users,
Employees of your Company

They just want to get rid of me. It’s my fault always. They are here for me and help me as a colleague. The feedback I give is appreciated and used to improve IT services. This makes me happy.

 

How can IT implement Experience Management?

Chapter 3

happysignals-how-to-use-xlas-sami

Creating an Experience Management culture for IT

happysignals-experience-management-maturity-pyramid-xla
Experience management should become the centre piece of any IT culture, however getting there isn’t just an over night process.
 
We have created a way for IT to start adopting an experience management mindset today. Following suit of Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, we have created the Experience Management pyramid. In order to reach an experience management culture, you must go through each stage in order to be successful.
 
 

Continuous Measurement 

The first level of the pyramid begins with Continuous Measurement, something that has been reiterated throughout this document. Continuous measurement is the pure foundation of experience management, as without it, we will not be able to have realistic data which can be progressed further with. In this step, your end-users give continuous feedback of the services they receive. You may be thinking “Oh great, a load of negative feedback”, but we have found that 75% of feedback is in fact positive.
 

Transparency

Experience data shouldn’t be owned by one person - it is important to share between your team, employees and partners. This creates transparency of the problem open to everyone, making it everyones job to improve and combined goals to reach together.
 

Experience Targets

From the experience data collected, and now your teams and partners aligned, it’s time to set targets on what outcomes you want to achieve. Following the advice we have given above, make sure to set targets that are focused on your end-users and their experience, as well as the value that these targets, when met, will bring to your end-users.
 

Steps to happiness - how to make it happen?

 
steps-to-happiness-in-taking-experience-management-into-use
 
Again, it's just getting started. Sharing experience data for the whole IT department and partners, allows smart people to start making data-driven decisions.
 
Looking from another perspective, we have integrated our Experience Management process from above, to show you the necessary Steps to Happiness, and essentially an Experience Driven IT culture.
 

Measuring Experiences from End-users

It’s not your average CSAT

Many times Customer Satisfaction is mixed with Customer Experience and rightly so, they sound very similar. There are however key differences between the two.
 
To put it shortly, CSAT measure the transaction that happened and how satisfied they were with the interaction between them and the agent. So you could be satisfied with the service you got, but not the end result of that service or how you initiated it. Experience metrics measure the end-to-end experience, everything that happened before, during and after.
 

How to measure?

Traditionally, Experience in IT has been measured with once-a-year surveys or with random surveys after some of the tickets have been handled by the Service Desk.
 
The issue with once-a-year survey is that they are very generic, they do not react in the speed that the world does nowadays (for example COVID-19 and Remote Work experience becoming important in matter of weeks). Also, you are asking from all end-users all the questions, even though they would not be using that particular service offered by the IT.
 
Better way is to have focused audiences and ask each day from a small group of end-users. This way you will get continuous stream of responses and see the effect of changes made instantly. For example having a big ERP project for multiple-years rolling out to one location at a time, would allow you to learn as you go and improve the experience after each rollout.
 
The same goes with ticket based measurement, you need to give options for end-users to answer every-time and make the gathering as part of the process, not an additional email you send afterwards.
 

What to measure?

You want to measure all aspects of IT, this means topics like devices, enterprise application, remote working, office environment, support services and so on. Each measurement will have it’s own consumer in the IT department, and most likely the IT Management Team and CIO will want to see them all in one view.
 
Companies can start with some topics to learn the new culture and then expand to more topics as they start to learn the new ways of thinking about service development.
 

When to measure?

Today, or in reality “You want it yesterday”, because having the data as soon as possible allows you to understand what end-users are experiencing today.
 
The biggest and most common fear is thinking what the scores will be like, which leads to “should we fix it first and then measure?” pondering. The point of measurement is not to look good, but to understand where you are and how can you make it better. Understanding this, highlights the need to have the data today.
 
We wrote an article on this topic “Why the best time to start measuring is now”, so head there if you want to learn more about it.
 

Setting Experience Level Targets

In order to set goals for IT, we need to be able to measure and manage the targets we set. That’s why in HappySignals you can set targets. To see how this is done you can learn from the 40 second video below.

 

Basically after setting targets, you are highlighting all aspects of the end-user’s experiences in all the views you see in HappySignals.

Sharing the targets is important, which is why you can use the live screens (our digital signage tool) to place the real-time tracking to any displays you have in your office or remote locations.
 
Experience Level Targets should be reviewed regularly, since end-users expectations change overtime and you need to make sure there is always place for improvement. These targets would be input for your Continuous Service Improvement process, or even for your DevOps process.
 

How to follow-up Experience Levels and identify focus areas?

When having a real-time analytics tool, like HappySignals, one can instantly understand that experience is multi-dimensional. Meaning that depending on the person who looks at the data, they need to be able to drill-down based on data they are responsible of. For example a Country Manager will click on a specific country, and will then see how the experience is with different services, channels or assignment groups. But a Service Owner of Email Services will just click on “Office365” and see how it’s been experienced in different locations, by different business units and so on.
 
IT Management Teams should treat experience data as the BI data they use to run their operations. Just like in sales, the Sales Dashboard is looked at weekly to lead and manage the team, therefore this should be the tool adopted by modern CIOs. Listen to how the CIO of Campari Group describes the importance of this.

What can Experience Management do for IT?

Taking Experience Management seriously will lead to actual results and change in the IT culture. On average HappySignals customers have been able to make a 26% improvements in productivity, compared against the first two months of measurement to the last two months of their experience management journey.
 
Basically these companies where focusing solely on the Happiness of end-users, which brought them alignment and huge returns on end-user productivity.
 
But enough from us, we have gathered an excellent list of customer cases so you can learn from real world examples.
 

Customer Cases of XLAs in Practise

Here are have gathered cases that show what the winners in this area are doing and have been doing already for years. If you still have doubt, check the incredible results our customers have been able to achieve.

Ahlstrom-Munksjö
112% improvement in end-user Happiness

ahlstrom-munksjo-xla-guide-case-study-image1
Image: Screenshot from HappySignals Analytics
 
In 2018, Ahlstrom merged with Munksjö and decided to use HappySignals in order to get feedback from their end-users. 
 
They quickly found that they were in fact experiencing the Watermelon effect, where there SLA metrics were reporting positive, green results, when in fact their end-users were not happy with IT services and seeing red.
 
Previously, Ahlstrom-Munksjö had been conducting annual surveys, however combining this information with HappySignals experience data, they were able to work closely with our team in order to create an action plan on how to solve end-user satisfaction problems, through a continuous improvement program called ‘Project Happy’.
 
HappySignals data has now been a key part of operational management meetings and enables Ahlstrom-Munksjö to immediately see results. The data is made transparent, so all management and service owners are able to access it, as well are their managed service provider - Tech Mahindra. This has led to an increase in motivation for their Service desk agents to deliver a high quality service.
 
From October 2019 to 2020, Ahlstrom-Munksjo have seen a 120% increase in end-user happiness, as well as a 68% decrease in lost time for their end-users.
 
Read more about this case
 

Reckitt Benckiser
44% more Happiness to colleagues

In 2018 RB took HappySignals Experience Management platform into use. They had a reputation problem with their IT department towards their business units and decided to find a remedy for the situation.
 
Based on their experience data, they could see their employees happiness was at level +53, which meant that people were mainly giving them 10s on the NPS scale. This was shown to business side the perception was changed.
After using the platform and making improvements RB decided at the beginning of 2019 to focus IT solely on the “Happiness of our colleagues” - the employees of RB and the end-users of IT. They wanted to set the bar high and target +64 on the NPS scale with end-user happiness.
 
RB used all the experience management methods, measured continuously, shared the data with live info screens at offices and identified problem areas. RB was able to take their score from January +56 to December +76, going over and above their set targets. The original target was in fact already met in May 2019.
 
When writing this guide, we noticed that even today, in the past 6 months, they have increased the happiness of end-users by another 7 points, being at an amazing +83.
To date, they continue to drive this employee-centric IT and are getting great results from it.
 
 

Wilhelmsen
55% Increase in Happiness in 12 months

Wilhelmsen decided to outsource their local IT departments from multiple countries to a global MSP. Before doing that, they had already experience data from their end-users and they could say with confidence how employees felt about IT Support before the agreement was done.
wilhelmsen-happysignals-increase-in-happiness
 
Just highlight how working together with your MSP can create huge gains for the whole enterprise. Going from +51 Happiness to +79 does not happen by accident.
 
 

Best Resources

Now you have heard extensively from us, we wanted to share some further industry leaders and experts views and opinions. Therefore, we give you the 5 best resources to turn to, when it comes to Experience Management.
 
CMSWire: Why IT Is Moving Beyond Service to Employee Experience
More organizations are introducing XLAs into their contracts with managed services providers (MSP) because it provides a foundation for user experience metrics than connect end-user technology to business performance.
 
Giarte, Marco Gianotten: Digital Empathy - When Tech Meets Touch 
“People will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.”
 
Alan Nance, CitrusCollab: Use experience-level agreements to elevate IT service satisfaction
Measuring what you can is not the same as doing what you must. It's time for a change. It's time to pivot from managing IT services to managing the consumer's experience of IT with experience-level agreements (XLAs).
 
Barclay Rae: Outcome and Experience Metrics (OXMs) – beyond the Watermelon
There’s a real need to move away from IT focussed SLAs and associated reporting, as this often does not represent customer / user experience, or show how services meet business demands.